One approach to clarifying the issue and clearing up any confusion it may have caused is legislation at the individual state level that unmistakably defines who is and is not a joint employer.  As we’ve advised in past issues, 3 states (Tennessee, Louisiana & Texas) had passed into law clarifying legislation that effectively exempts franchising from joint employer.  Just before Christmas, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder (currently facing a torrent of criticism over the Flint water crisis) made Michigan the 4th when he signed SB 493 into law.  This year, several states (Virginia, Wisconsin, Colorado, Indiana, Georgia, North Carolina, Utah and Arizona) are looking to resolve the issue with similar legislation.  We expect a number of them will enact the legislation before the 2016 sessions come to an end in a few months.