In a 5-4 decision along ideological lines this week, the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) expanded the potential use I-9 information for the potential prosecution of state crimes as well. The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), which created the I-9 form, states that the information “may not be used for purposes other than” federal enforcement of that law. However, SCOTUS found that the IRCA did not preempt the use of the information to enforce state laws. The case, Kansas v Garcia, involved 3 workers charged by the state of Kansas with identity theft due to fraudulent information they included on state and federal tax forms. The Kansas Supreme Court had previously ruled the information inadmissible because it was included in the defendants’ I-9 forms and its use was therefore preempted by federal law. SCOTUS however, saw it differently, reversing and remanding the case to the Kansas courts.