In a major disappointment to the International Franchise Association as well as the broader franchise community, without comment, the US Supreme Court refused to hear a challenge of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals decision that ratified the law. Joined by a handful of local franchisees, the IFA brought suit claiming the law violated a number of constitutional provisions by treating independent small businesses differently than it treated independent small franchised businesses solely on the basis of their business model. The challenge, initiated back in 2014 shortly after Seattle Mayor Ed Murray signed the $15/hour mandate into law, was first filed with the US District Court in Seattle. US District Court Judge Richard Jones refused to enjoin the law and his decision was ultimately appealed to the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. A three-judge panel of the appellate court subsequently upheld Jones decision, and rejected each of the individual grounds raised by the IFA suit. The law took effect on April 1, 2015. Franchise owners will next face an increase to $13/hour ($12.50/hour if health insurance is also provided) on January 1, 2017.