A lawsuit challenging the major credit card companies over requiring merchants to use new embedded chip technology has been allowed to move forward by San Francisco-based US District Court Judge William Alsup.  The action, initiated by four smaller grocery stores in California, Florida and New York, contends that VISA, MasterCard, American Express and Discover conspired to violate fair trade practices by colluding to require businesses to purchase and use new expensive EMV credit card chip reading machines at a significant cost.  The businesses, aiming to recoup the costs of installing the new readers, also hope to ultimately win certification as a class action.  Should that happen, the lawsuit, as a certified class action, could possibly expand to cover some 8 million additional small businesses across the country.  Do stay tuned as there will be much more to report on this action!